al-Majali AM, Asem EK, Lamar C, Robinson JP, Freeman J, Saeed AM (1999) Insulin modulates intestinal response of suckling mice to the Escherichia coli heat-stable enterotoxin. Adv Exp Med Biol 473 :113-123
Effect of insulin on the response of suckling mice to the enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli heat-stable enterotoxin (STa) was studied. Four groups (8-10 in each group) of two day old Swiss Webster suckling mice were used. Five, 10, 25, and 50 micrograms of insulin were given orally to half the mice in each group respectively. The rest of the mice in each group were given normal saline as intra-litter controls. After 7 days, the suckling mouse assay for STa was performed on three mice from each insulin-treated and control groups. Enterocyte suspensions were prepared from mice in all groups. Intestinal tissue samples were taken for electron microscopy. Interaction of STa with its putative receptor on the enterocytes was evaluated using indirect immunofluorescence and flow cytometry. The suckling mouse assay revealed a significant increase in the gut weight to body weight ratio in all mice in the insulin treated groups compared to control mice (p < 0.05). Flow cytometry and indirect immunofluorescence analyses suggested that insulin had an upregulatory effect on the STa receptor level. Similarly, insulin was found to increase intestinal brush border membrane differentiation as indicated by the increase in the inward movement of milk particles through the intestinal mucosa. Insulin seems to modify the structure-function of the brush border membrane including the response of suckling mice to STa. This study may provide further insights into the mechanism of STa/receptor interaction in diarrhea in newborn animals and human infants.
al-Majali AM, Robinson JP, Asem EK, Lamar C, Freeman MJ, Saeed AM (1999) Age-dependent variation in the density and affinity of Escherichia coli heat-stable enterotoxin receptors in mice. Adv Exp Med Biol 473 :137-145
Enterotoxigenic strains of Escherichia coli that produce heat-stable enterotoxin (STa), are a major cause of diarrheal disease worldwide. Resistance to diarrheal disease in human infants and newborn animals has been attributed to a gradual turnover in the intestinal brush border membrane receptors to bacterial pili. In this study, we demonstrated age-dependent variation in the density and affinity of the mouse enterocyte receptors specific for STa. Flow cytometry and radiolabeled-STa (125I-STa) assays were used as more reliable quantitative measures for the characterization of STa-enterocyte receptor interaction. These assays indicated a stronger interaction of STa with its putative receptor on the enterocytes of the 2-day-old suckling mice than with enterocytes from 1-week, 2-week and 2-month-old mice. Scatchard plot analysis of 125I-STa-receptor interaction suggested that STa-receptors exist at a higher number on enterocytes from the 2-day-old mice than enterocytes of the older mice. Additionally, receptors from the 2-day-old mice had a greater affinity for STa ligand than receptors from the older mice. Density of STa receptors on enterocytes and their affinity to STa may determine the extent of binding and severity of secretory response. This may further explain the increased susceptibility of newborn animals and human infants to STa-mediated diarrheal disease.
Alonso M, Rodriguez S, Perez-Prieto SI (1999) Viral coinfection in salmonids : infectious pancreatic necrosis virus interferes with infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus. Arch Virol 144 :657-673
Coinfection of farm-reared salmonids involving two viruses has been described, but there is no report on the interactions between viruses. Here we examine whether infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) strain Sp interferes with the growth of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) strain S46, a coinfected isolate from rainbow trout. When BF-2 cell culture was inoculated with S46 the infective titer of the IHNV fraction decreased by 3 log10 units compared to the growth curve of IHNV in the single infection. RT-PCR assay confirmed this reduction, which after successive passages of the co-infected sample led to a decrease in IHNV mRNA and the absence of the specific PCR product for IHNV. Flow cytometry showed that only 13% of the cells inoculated with S46 strain were infected with IHNV at 48-72 h post infection, in contrast to the 50-80% of cells that were positive for IPNV. Exposure of cells to IHNV for 24 h before infection with IPNV did not affect the infective titers of either virus or the PCR results obtained in simultaneous coinfections. Moreover IHNV was not inhibited when the IPNV inoculum was reduced. So, a multiplicity of infection dependence was demonstrated for IPNV-IHNV interference ; the RT-PCR assay described here was found to be a suitable technique for identifying and studying dual viral infections.
Archambault M, Rioux S, Jacques M (1999) Evaluation of the hemoglobin-binding activity of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae using fluorescein-labeled pig hemoglobin and flow cytometry. FEMS Microbiol Lett 173 :17-25
In the present study, the hemoglobin (Hb)-binding activity of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae was examined using fluorescein-labeled pig Hb and flow cytometry. Comparison of the Hb-binding activity of A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 1 strain 4074 grown under iron-restricted conditions with cells grown under iron-sufficient conditions indicated that iron-restriction in A. pleuropneumoniae promotes the expression of Hb receptors, and that Hb-binding activity is, at least in part, iron-repressible. Hb-binding activity was also observed in representative strains of A. pleuropneumoniae belonging to serotypes 1 and 2. In addition, A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 1 LPS or capsule isogenic mutants were tested in flow cytometry in order to understand the influence of surface polysaccharides on Hb-binding activity. Experiments with an acapsulated mutant indicated that surface molecules with Hb-binding activity are more exposed at the cell surface in the absence of capsular polysaccharides. However, the Hb-binding activity of LPS mutants analyzed in this study was unchanged compared to the parent strain. The outer membrane proteins profile of A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 1 grown under iron-restricted or iron-sufficient conditions was also evaluated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Iron-regulated outer membrane proteins were observed under iron-restricted growth conditions which suggests that one or more of these outer membrane proteins may play a role in the Hb-binding activity detected by flow cytometry.
Arroyo G, Sanz PD, Prestamo G (1999) Response to high-pressure, low-temperature treatment in vegetables : determination of survival rates of microbial populations using flow cytometry and detection of peroxidase activity using confocal microscopy. J Appl Microbiol 86 :544-556
Application of high hydrostatic pressure (200, 300, 350 and 400 MPa) at 5 degrees C for 30 min to different micro-organisms, including Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, moulds and yeasts, proved to be more effective in inactivating these organisms than treatments at 20 degrees C for 10 min and at 10 degrees C for 20 min. Moulds, yeasts, Gram-negative bacteria and Listeria monocytogenes were most sensitive, and their populations were completely inactivated at pressures between 300 and 350 MPa. The same conditions of pressure, temperature, and time were applied to different vegetables (lettuce, tomato, asparagus, spinach, cauliflower and onion), achieving reductions of from 2-4 log units in both viable mesophiles and moulds and yeasts at pressures of between 300 and 400 MPa. Sensory characteristics were unaltered, especially in asparagus, onion, tomato and cauliflower, though slight browning was observed in cauliflower at 350 MPa. Flow cytometry was applied to certain of the microbial populations used in the above experiment before and after the pressurization treatment. The results were indicative of differing percentage survival rates depending on micro-organism type, with higher survival rates for Gram-positive bacteria, except L. monocytogenes, than in the other test micro-organisms. Growth of survivors was undetectable using the plate count method, suggesting that micro-organisms suffering from pressure stress were metabolically inactive though alive. The pressurization treatments did not inactivate the peroxidase responsible for browning in vegetables. Confocal microscopic examination of epidermal tissue from onion showed that the enzyme had been displaced to the cell interior. Use of low temperatures and moderately long pressurization times yielded improved inactivation of micro-organisms and better sensorial characteristics of the vegetables, and should lower industrial costs.
Barardi CR, Yip H, Emsile KR, Vesey G, Shanker SR, Williams KL (1999) Flow cytometry and RT-PCR for rotavirus detection in artificially seeded oyster meat. Int J Food Microbiol 49 :9-18
A flow cytometry (FC)-based method was developed for the detection of rotavirus in oyster meat using simian rotavirus SA11 as a model. To study virus recovery, oyster meat was injected with rotavirus and the oyster extract used to infect MA104 cell monolayers. Following varying periods of infection, the cells were recovered and reacted with the monoclonal antibody M60 which is specific for the rotavirus group A serotypes 1-4 outer capsid protein, VP7, followed by a second antibody (anti mouse IgG-FITC). A FACScan FC was used to estimate the number of infected cells as well as the level of infection. To evaluate the sensitivity of the method, non-inoculated oysters were processed following the same extraction protocol and, at the end, they were seeded with the same amount of virus used for oyster inoculation. This seeded oyster extract was then used to infect MA104 cells and the number of infected cells determined using the same FC procedure. A semi-nested two-step PCR for detection of rotavirus nucleic acid was undertaken to compare the sensitivity of FC with RT-PCR. Using FC, as little as 0.02 flow cytometry units (fcu) (number of infected cells counted by FC) could be detected after 72 h of cell infection. This is a very similar limit of sensitivity to that obtained with RT-PCR. Both methods are approximately 100 times more sensitive than the plaque-forming units (pfu) assay.
Beer M, Wolf G (1999) [Selection of BVDV genotype II isolates using a monoclonal antibody and FACS analysis]. Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr 112 :345-350
The infection of cattle with the bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in Germany is gaining attention and guidelines for the "protection of cattle farms against BVDV infections" were passed in 1997. New investigations about the damages induced by BVDV infections as well as the new occurrence of so-called BVDV genotypes (BVDV I and II) made the problems to become aware. The newly described BVDV genotype considerably differs both genetically and antigenetically from the up to now known BVD-viruses (BVDV I). The subdivision in BVDV genotypes I and II is based on genomic differences, which are determined by sequence analyses of different parts of the viral genome. Here, we describe the classification of BVDV in genotypes using a monoclonal antibody and indirect immunofluorescence with flow cytometry (FACS) based analysis. The suitability of the mab WB160 (Central Veterinary Laboratory, Weybridge ; UK) for the classification of both BVDV-genotypes was first checked using genetically defined BVDV isolates. While all BVDV I isolates (n = 20) reacted with high fluorescence signals, the mab WB160 could not detect any of the defined BVDV II isolates (n = 20). Subsequently, 505 BVDV field strains isolated between 1993-1997 were screened for both genotypes using the mab WB160 and FACS analysis. 33 (6.5%) of the BVDV isolates were classified as BVDV II.
Catala P, Parthuisot N, Bernard L, Baudart J, Lemarchand K, Lebaron P (1999) Effectiveness of CSE to counterstain particles and dead bacterial cells with permeabilised membranes : application to viability assessment in waters. FEMS Microbiol Lett 178 :219-226
The CSE dye (Chemunex, Maisons-Alfort, France) was combined with an activity marker to improve bacterial activity assessment in natural waters. Its effectiveness to counterstain dead cells with permeabilised membranes was investigated on live and dead cells of a variety of strains from collections or isolated from the natural environment. Cells were killed by heat treatment. For all strains tested, the fluorescent dye showed an intense staining of killed cells having permeabilised membranes while no significant signal was detected when applied to live cells. Furthermore, the CSE dye had no toxicity on viable cells. Then, CSE was combined with the ChemChrome V6 dye (Chemunex) to assess the activity of bacterial cells in different waters. Both fluorescences were analysed simultaneously by solid-phase cytometry. The active cell counts were sometimes lower when both dyes were combined suggesting that CSE was able to counterstain cells having a residual esterase activity and compromised membranes. These cells were subtracted from the active cell counts determined with ChemChrome V6. In most samples, active cell counts were congruent with those determined by the direct viable count method.
Chen XQ, Singh M, Howe J, Ho LC, Tan SW, Yap EH (1999) In vitro encystation and excystation of Blastocystis ratti. Parasitology 118 ( Pt 2) :151-160
Cysts of Blastocystis ratti were produced in vitro by culturing the parasite in Iscove’s modified Dulbecco’s medium (IMDM) with increasing concentrations of horse serum. Yields up to 3 x 10(6) cysts/ml of culture medium were obtained after 72 h. Encystation efficiency was time, strain and inoculum size dependent. A viability of > 70% was determined by flow cytometry employing fluorescein diacetate and propidium iodide staining. The presence of chitin as a cyst wall component was demonstrated by Calcofluor White M2R staining with which cystic stages showed blue fluorescence. The changes in morphology during excystation were examined by transmission electron microscopy. The cyst enlarged in size and some vacuoles appeared within the condensed cytoplasm. The vacuoles were full of inclusions and small glycogen aggregates. Coalescence of the vacuoles led to central body formation. Glycogen deposits were prominent throughout the excystation process. Some cysts divided by binary fission before the completion of the excystation.
Cremer J, Vatou V, Braveny I (1999) 2,4-(hydroxyphenyl)-ethanol, an antioxidative agent produced by Candida spp., impairs neutrophilic yeast killing in vitro. FEMS Microbiol Lett 170 :319-325
Culture supernatants of Candida albicans were examined for factors with inhibitory activity against the chemiluminescence of human neutrophils. By high resolution gel chromatography, a low-molecular-mass chemiluminescence inhibitor was isolated. The compound was identified as 2,4-(hydroxyphenyl)-ethanol. Half-maximum inhibition (IC50) of the chemiluminescence response of neutrophils phagocytizing opsonized zymosan or C. albicans occurred at 38.1 +/- 2.3 microM and 19.9 +/- 8.3 microM, respectively. As shown by flow cytometry, the compound protected C. albicans against phagocytic killing (IC50 = 73.8 +/- 16.9 microM). Substantially higher concentrations of the inhibitor were produced by C. albicans and C. tropicalis than by C. parapsilosis and C. glabrata, suggesting a potential role in pathogenicity ranking.
Davoust N, Nataf S, Holers VM, Barnum SR (1999) Expression of the murine complement regulatory protein crry by glial cells and neurons. Glia 27 :162-170
The expression of the murine complement regulatory protein, Crry, in the CNS remains largely unexplored. In this study, we examined murine astrocytes and microglia purified from neonatal brain and sections of adult murine brain for the expression of Crry. Using RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, flow cytometry, and Western blot analysis, we demonstrated that astrocytes and microglia express Crry protein and RNA. Crry expression is greater on microglia than astrocytes and, as determined by Western blot analysis, each cell type expresses a Crry protein of different molecular weight. Interestingly, neuronal expression of Crry was seen only at the RNA level. These data demonstrate Crry expression by astrocytes, microglia, and neurons in the murine CNS and suggest that Crry may play an important role in protecting the CNS against complement-mediated damage.
de Boer E, Beumer RR (1999) Methodology for detection and typing of foodborne microorganisms. Int J Food Microbiol 50 :119-130
Over the past decade many improvements have been seen in both conventional and modern methods for the detection of pathogenic bacteria in foods. Modifications and automation of conventional methods in food microbiology include sample preparation, plating techniques, counting and identification test kits. ATP bioluminescence techniques are increasingly used for measuring the efficiency of cleaning surfaces and utensils. Cell counting methods, including flow cytometry and the direct epifluorescent filter technique are suitable techniques for rapid detection of microorganisms, especially in fluids. Automated systems based on impedimetry are able to screen high numbers of samples based on total bacterial counts within 1 day. Immunoassays in a wide range of formats make rapid detection of many pathogens possible. Recently, there have been important developments in the use of nucleic acid-based assays for the detection and subtyping of foodborne pathogens. The sensitivity of these methods has been significantly increased by the use of the polymerase chain reaction and other amplification techniques. Alternative and rapid methods must meet several requirements concerning accuracy, validation, speed, automation, sample matrix, etc. Both conventional and rapid methods are used within hazard analysis critical control point programs. Further improvements especially in immunoassays and genetic methods can be expected, including the use of biosensors and DNA chip technology.
Dubelaar GB, Gerritzen PL, Beeker AE, Jonker RR, Tangen K (1999) Design and first results of CytoBuoy : a wireless flow cytometer for in situ analysis of marine and fresh waters. Cytometry 37 :247-254
BACKGROUND:The high costs of microscopical determination and counting of phytoplankton often limit sampling frequencies below an acceptable level for the monitoring of dynamic ecosystems. Although having a limited discrimination power, flow cytometry allows the analysis of large numbers of samples to a level that is sufficient for many basic monitoring jobs. For this purpose, flow cytometers should not be restricted to research laboratories. We report here on the development of an in situ flow cytometer for autonomous operation inside a small moored buoy or on other platforms. METHODS AND RESULTS : Operational specifications served a wide range of applications in the aquatic field. Specific conditions had to be met with respect to the operation platform and autonomy. A small, battery-operated flow cytometer resulted, requiring no external sheath fluid supply. Because it was designed to operate in a buoy, we call it CytoBuoy. Sampling, analysis, and radio transmission of the data proceed automatically at user-defined intervals. A powerful feature is the acquisition and radio transmission of full detector pulse shapes of each particle. This provides valuable morphological information for particles larger than the 5-microm laser focus. CONCLUSIONS:CytoBuoy allows on-line in situ particle analysis, estimation of phytoplankton biomass, and discrimination between different phytoplankton groups. This will increase the applicability of flow cytometry in the field of environmental monitoring.
Fischer TK, Prag J, Kharazmi A (1999) Survival and function of phagocytes in blood culture media. Apmis 107 :217-224
The survival and function of human phagocytes in sterile aerobic and anaerobic blood culture media were investigated using neutrophil morphology, white blood cell count in a haemoanalyser, flow cytometry, oxidative burst response, and bactericidal effect in Colorbact and Septi-Chek blood culture media and Bact/Alert. When comparing agitation to stationary incubation no difference in phagocytic activity was found. The methods showed the same trends demonstrating that the phagocytes’ viability and activity were prolonged by oxygen and shortened by anaerobic conditions and sodium polyethanol sulfonate (SPS). Best preserved activity and viability were found in the aerobic media containing less than 0.5 g/l SPS, in which significant phagocyte oxidative burst and bactericidal activity were found up to 4 days after inoculation. Considering that the majority of bacteremias are due to aerobic or facultatively anaerobic bacteria, the present data suggest that most bacteria may be recovered by the use of one aerobic bottle with SPS concentration below 0.5 g/l to protect meningococci and other SPS-sensitive bacteria and one above 0.5 g/l to stop phagocytic activity, plus one anaerobic bottle with SPS below 0.5 g/l.
Frank JR, Breitschwerdt EB (1999) A retrospective study of ehrlichiosis in 62 dogs from North Carolina and Virginia. J Vet Intern Med 13 :194-201
The purpose of this retrospective study is to report the clinical signs, clinicopathological findings, and response to therapy of 62 dogs from North Carolina and Virginia. Ehrlichiosis was diagnosed in all of these dogs, and previous retrospective studies of ehrlichiosis in dogs were used as a basis for comparison. In this study, the clinical signs commonly associated with ehrlichiosis were observed less frequently than in earlier studies, although previously reported laboratory abnormalities were similar. Flow cytometry revealed an inverted CD4:CD8 ratio in 3 of 4 dogs tested. This finding is suggestive of potential immune dysregulation that could predispose infected dogs to additional disease processes. Concurrent diseases were frequently reported and often contributed to death. Response to therapy was variable, with timely, complete recovery reported in only 27% of dogs ; a slow, gradual, but complete recovery in 18% of dogs ; an incomplete treatment response in 25% of dogs ; and a presumed treatment failure in 16% of dogs.
Goodridge L, Chen J, Griffiths M (1999) Development and characterization of a fluorescent-bacteriophage assay for detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7. Appl Environ Microbiol 65 :1397-1404
In this paper we describe evaluation and characterization of a novel assay that combines immunomagnetic separation and a fluorescently stained bacteriophage for detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in broth. When it was combined with flow cytometry, the fluorescent-bacteriophage assay (FBA) was capable of detecting 10(4) cells/ml. A modified direct epifluorescent-filter technique (DEFT) was employed in an attempt to estimate bacterial concentrations. Using regression analysis, we calculated that the lower detection limit was between 10(2) and 10(3) cells/ml ; however, the modified DEFT was found to be an unreliable method for determining bacterial concentrations. The results of this study show that the FBA, when combined with flow cytometry, is a sensitive technique for presumptive detection of E. coli O157:H7 in broth cultures.
Goodridge L, Chen J, Griffiths M (1999) The use of a fluorescent bacteriophage assay for detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in inoculated ground beef and raw milk. Int J Food Microbiol 47 :43-50
The objective of this study was to develop a fluorescent bacteriophage assay (FBA) for the detection of E. coli O157:H7 in ground beef and raw milk. The FBA is a two step assay that combines immunomagnetic separation, to separate the target organism from mixed culture, with a highly specific fluorescently stained bacteriophage to label the E. coli O157:H7 cells. When used in conjunction with flow cytometry, the FBA was able to detect 2.2 CFU/g of artificially contaminated ground beef following a 6 h enrichment. Between 10(1) and 10(2) CFU/ml of artificially contaminated raw milk were detectable after a 10 h enrichment step. The results show that the FBA is potentially useful as a rapid technique for the preliminary detection of E. coli O157:H7 in food.
Gorenflo V, Steinbuchel A, Marose S, Rieseberg M, Scheper T (1999) Quantification of bacterial polyhydroxyalkanoic acids by Nile red staining. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 51 :765-772
The fluorescence properties of one chemically and seven biologically produced polyhydroxyalkanoic acid were investigated as film castings and in living cells respectively after staining with Nile red. All these polyesters show a similar fluorescence behaviour, revealing a clear fluorescence maximum at an excitation wavelength between 540 nm and 560 nm and an emission wavelength between 570 nm and 605 nm. This could be shown by the use of two-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy and flow cytometry. The examination of native poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid), poly(3HB), granules isolated from cells of Ralstonia eutropha H16 showed that the addition of 6.0 micrograms Nile red is necessary for total staining of 1.0 mg granules. The fluorescence intensity at an excitation wavelength of 550 nm and an emission wavelength of 600 nm showed high correlation to the poly(3HB) concentration of grana suspensions at different grana concentrations. These results and the staining of cell suspensions during cultivation experiments revealed that Nile red has a high potential for the quantitative determination of hydrophobic bacterial polyhydroxyalkanoic acids.
Grab DJ, Lanners H, Martin LN, Chesney J, Cai C, Adkisson HD, Bucala R (1999) Interaction of Borrelia burgdorferi with peripheral blood fibrocytes, antigen-presenting cells with the potential for connective tissue targeting. Mol Med 5 :46-54
BACKGROUND : Borrelia Burgdorferi has a predilection for collagenous tissue and can interact with fibronectin and cellular collagens. While the molecular mechanisms of how B. burgdorferi targets connective tissues and causes arthritis are not understood, the spirochetes can bind to a number of different cell types, including fibroblasts. A novel circulating fibroblast-like cell called the peripheral blood fibrocyte has recently been described. Fibrocytes express collagen types I and III as well as fibronectin. Besides playing a role in wound healing, fibrocytes have the potential to target to connective tissue and the functional capacity to recruit, activate, and present antigen to CD4(+) T cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS : Rhesus monkey fibrocytes were isolated and characterized by flow cytometry. B. burgdorferi were incubated with human or monkey fibrocyte cultures in vitro and the cellular interactions analyzed by light and electron microscopy. The two strains of B. burgdorferi studied included JD1, which is highly pathogenic for monkeys, and M297, which lacks the cell surface OspA and OspB proteins. RESULTS : In this study, we demonstrate that B. burgdorferi binds to both human and monkey (rhesus) fibrocytes in vitro. This process does not require OspA or OspB. In addition, the spirochetes are not phagocytosed but are taken into deep recesses of the cell membrane, a process that may protect them from the immune system. CONCLUSIONS : This interaction between B. burgdorferi and peripheral blood fibrocytes provides a potential explanation for the targeting of spirochetes to joint connective tissue and may contribute to the inflammatory process in Lyme arthritis.
Grossman WJ, Verbsky JW, Yang L, Berg LJ, Fields LE, Chaplin DD, Ratner L (1999) Dysregulated myelopoiesis in mice lacking Jak3. Blood 94 :932-939
Jak3 is a cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase that associates with the common chain of the interleukin-2 (IL-2) receptor and is involved in the function of the receptors for IL-2, IL-4, IL-7, IL-9, and IL-15. Mice deficient in Jak3 have few T and B cells, and no natural killer cells. Herein we show that the myeloid lineages in these mice are also affected by the loss of Jak3. Mice lacking Jak3 exhibit splenomegaly by 4 months of age. Peripheral blood smears show an increase in the number of neutrophils and cells of the monocytic lineage. Flow cytometry of splenocytes and peripheral blood show a significant increase in FcgammaRII/III(FcgammaR)/Mac-1, FcgammaR/Gr-1, and FcgammaR/F4/80 double-positive cells in -/- and +/- mice compared to wild-type mice, consistent with an expansion of cells of the myeloid lineages. In addition, as the mice age, F4/80 and CD3 positive mononuclear cells infiltrate the kidneys, lungs, and liver of these mice. When Jak3-/- mice are crossed with a transgenic mouse expressing Jak3 in the T and NK cell compartments, the splenomegaly and myeloid expansion are accentuated. These data correlate with the constitutive activation of T cells in the periphery as the transgenic cells lose their expression of Jak3 with age. However, when Jak3-/- mice are crossed with RAG-1-deficient animals, no splenomegaly or myeloid expansion is apparent. These results indicate that the loss of Jak3 in the T-cell compartment drives the expansion of the myeloid lineages.
James BW, Mauchline WS, Dennis PJ, Keevil CW, Wait R (1999) Poly-3-hydroxybutyrate in Legionella pneumophila, an energy source for survival in low-nutrient environments. Appl Environ Microbiol 65 :822-827
Chloroform-soluble material was extracted from two strains of L. pneumophila serogroup 1 following growth in continuous culture. The purified material was identified as poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. PHB yields of up to 16% of cell dry weight were extracted from culture samples. The PHB was located in electron-dense intracellular inclusions, which fluoresced bright yellow when stained with the lipophilic dye Nile red. A Nile red spectrofluorometric assay provided a more accurate and reliable determination of the PHB content. PHB accumulation increased threefold during iron-limited culture and was inversely related to the concentration of iron metabolized. Chemostat-grown cells survived in a culturable state for at least 600 days when incubated at 24 degreesC in a low-nutrient tap water environment. Nile red spectrofluorometry and flow cytometry demonstrated that PHB reserves were utilized during starvation. PHB utilization, as revealed by the decline in mean cellular fluorescence and cell complexity, correlated with loss of culturability. Fluorescence microscopy provided visual evidence of PHB utilization, with a marked reduction in the number of Nile red-stained granules during starvation. Heat shock treatment failed to resuscitate nonculturable cells. This study demonstrates that L. pneumophila accumulates significant intracellular reserves of PHB, which promote its long-term survival under conditions of starvation.
Jemmerson R, Liu J, Hausauer D, Lam KP, Mondino A, Nelson RD (1999) A conformational change in cytochrome c of apoptotic and necrotic cells is detected by monoclonal antibody binding and mimicked by association of the native antigen with synthetic phospholipid vesicles. Biochemistry 38 :3599-3609
By flow cytometry, a conformational change in mouse cytochrome c (cyt c) of apoptotic and necrotic T hybridoma cells was detected using a monoclonal antibody (mAb) that recognizes the region around amino acid residue 44 on a non-native form of the protein. The conformational change in cyt c is an early event in apoptosis, which can be identified in pre-apoptotic cells that are negative for other indicators of apoptosis. Since the mAb did not bind fixed and permeabilized live cells and did not immunoprecipitate soluble cyt c extracted with detergent from dead cells, it appears to recognize cyt cbound in a detergent-sensitive complex to other cellular components. Coincidentally, the mAb was also shown by competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to bind cyt c associated with synthetic phosphatidic acid vesicles. This suggests that the conformational change of cyt c in dying cells could be due to its association with intracellular membranes that are, perhaps, altered in cell death. By immunofluorescent confocal microscopy, conformationally altered cyt c in post-apoptotic T hybridoma cells showed a punctate distribution, indicating that it remained associated with mitochondria. Furthermore, the heavy membrane fraction of post-apoptotic cells but not of live cells was functional in caspase activation. This suggests that membrane-bound cyt c is the relevant caspase coactivation factor in the T hybridoma cells.
Joux F, Jeffrey WH, Lebaron P, Mitchell DL (1999) Marine bacterial isolates display diverse responses to UV-B radiation. Appl Environ Microbiol 65 :3820-3827
The molecular and biological consequences of UV-B radiation were investigated by studying five species of marine bacteria and one enteric bacterium. Laboratory cultures were exposed to an artificial UV-B source and subjected to various post-UV irradiation treatments. Significant differences in survival subsequent to UV-B radiation were observed among the isolates, as measured by culturable counts. UV-B-induced DNA photodamage was investigated by using a highly specific radioimmunoassay to measure cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs). The CPDs determined following UV-B exposure were comparable for all of the organisms except Sphingomonas sp. strain RB2256, a facultatively oligotrophic ultramicrobacterium. This organism exhibited little DNA damage and a high level of UV-B resistance. Physiological conditioning by growth phase and starvation did not change the UV-B sensitivity of marine bacteria. The rates of photoreactivation following exposure to UV-B were investigated by using different light sources (UV-A and cool white light). The rates of photoreactivation were greatest during UV-A exposure, although diverse responses were observed. The differences in sensitivity to UV-B radiation between strains were reduced after photoreactivation. The survival and CPD data obtained for Vibrio natriegens when we used two UV-B exposure periods interrupted by a repair period (photoreactivation plus dark repair) suggested that photoadaptation could occur. Our results revealed that there are wide variations in marine bacteria in their responses to UV radiation and subsequent repair strategies, suggesting that UV-B radiation may affect the microbial community structure in surface water.
Jung SS, Cashman NR (1999) Processing of the beta-amyloid precursor protein in ex vivo human brain cells. Neuroreport 10 :3875-3879
We studied distribution and processing of the Alzheimer’s beta-amyloid precursor protein (betaAPP) in immediately ex vivo human brain cells obtained during neurosurgical procedures. Immunoblotting and flow cytometry studies revealed that brain cells supported betaAPP as a transmembrane holoprotein. Brain cells in short-term suspension culture were competent to process betaAPP into Abeta as shown by [35S]methionine pulse-chase studies. Brain cell Abeta was immunoprecipitated as SDS-stable dimers and higher-order multimers. Cleavage of cell surface betaAPP with trypsin prior to metabolic labeling reduced cellular Abeta by approximately 50%. We conclude that plasmalemmal betaAPP in human brain cells is a source of cellular Abeta, presumably via endosomal-lysosomal processing.
Kaden V, Steyer H, Strebelow G, Lange E, Hubert P, Steinhagen P (1999) Detection of low-virulent classical swine fever virus in blood of experimentally infected animals : comparison of different methods. Acta Virol 43 :373-380
The effectiveness of virus isolation, commercial antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and flow cytometry in detection of a low-virulent classical swine fever virus (CSFV) in blood in the early period of infection was evaluated. Domestic pigs at the age of 6-8 weeks and young wild boars were inoculated with a low-virulent field isolate of CSFV originating from a wild boar. This virus induced serious clinical reaction in only one pig which was naturally infected with Pasteurella multocida. Nine of 13 infected domestic pigs showed viremia. All infected weanling pigs were found viraemic by virus isolation on day 6 post infection (p.i.) but virus-free by RT-PCR. The flow cytometry was apparently not as sensitive as the virus isolation. Two young wild boars infected with the virus were viremic only for the first 2 days p.i. Virus isolation and RT-PCR were of similar sensitivity. Three different commercial antigen ELISAs used were not able to detect viral antigen in any animal.
Kamiya S, Yamaguchi H, Osaki T, Taguchi H, Fukuda M, Kawakami H, Hirano H (1999) Effect of an aluminum hydroxide-magnesium hydroxide combination drug on adhesion, IL-8 inducibility, and expression of HSP60 by Helicobacter pylori. Scand J Gastroenterol 34 :663-670
BACKGROUND : Co-magaldrox (Maalox) is used world-wide as an antacid and as a cytoprotective agent for gastritis and peptic ulcer diseases. We examined the effects of co-magaldrox on Helicobacter pylori. METHODS : Adhesion of H. pylori to human gastric epithelial cells (MKN45) was evaluated by flow cytometry. Morphologic changes in H. pylori caused by co-magaldrox were determined by scanning electron microscopy. Induction of interleukin-8 (IL-8) from MKN45 cells was examined with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the intracellular and extracellular expression of heat-shock protein 60 (HSP60) was analyzed with sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and flow cytometry. RESULTS : Adhesion of H. pylori to MKN 45 cells was significantly inhibited by 1.25%-5% comagaldrox. H. pylori aggregated with co-magaldrox according to an electron microscopic examination. IL-8 secretion from MKN45 cells after H. pylori infection was also inhibited by co-magaldrox. Extracellular expression of HSP60 on the surface of H. pylori was decreased after treatment with comagaldrox, whereas the intracellular synthesis of HSP60 was not. HSP60-induced IL-8 secretion was significantly inhibited by co-magaldrox in a dose-dependent manner. CONCLUSIONS : These results show that co-magaldrox suppressed the expression of the following virulence factors : adhesion, IL-8 inducibility, and expression of extracellular HSP60. Therefore, co-magaldrox is a potent anti-H. pylori and cytoprotective drug.
Karl DM, Bird DF, Bjorkman K, Houlihan T, Shackelford R, Tupas L (1999) Microorganisms in the accreted ice of Lake Vostok, Antarctica. Science 286 :2144-2147
Analysis of a portion of Vostok ice core number 5G, which is thought to contain frozen water derived from Lake Vostok, Antarctica (a body of liquid water located beneath about 4 kilometers of glacial ice), revealed between 2 x 10(2) and 3 x 10(2) bacterial cells per milliliter and low concentrations of potential growth nutrients. Lipopolysaccharide (a Gram-negative bacterial cell biomarker) was also detected at concentrations consistent with the cell enumeration data, which suggests a predominance of Gram-negative bacteria. At least a portion of the microbial assemblage was viable, as determined by the respiration of carbon-14-labeled acetate and glucose substrates during incubations at 3 degrees C and 1 atmosphere. These accreted ice data suggest that Lake Vostok may contain viable microorganisms.
Kouri TT, Kahkonen U, Malminiemi K, Vuento R, Rowan RM (1999) Evaluation of Sysmex UF-100 urine flow cytometer vs chamber counting of supravitally stained specimens and conventional bacterial cultures. Am J Clin Pathol 112 :25-35
We evaluated the Sysmex UF-100 urine flow cytometer (TOA Medical Electronics, Kobe, Japan) with 269 uncentrifuged urine specimens by comparing it with Sternheimer staining and particle counting in 1-microL disposable chambers with both brightfield and phase-contrast microscopy (the reference method). Results of routine test strip analysis, sediment microscopy (182 specimens), and bacterial culture (204 specimens) were also available. Detection of urinary WBCs and RBCs was highly reliable with the UF-100 compared with manual chamber counting (r = .98 and .88, respectively). Identification of bacteria was equal to that with visual microscopy of uncentrifuged specimens ; sensitivity was 55%, and specificity 90%, compared with bacterial cultures at a cutoff of > 10(3) colony-forming units per milliliter. Renal damage was difficult to evaluate even with manual methods because of the low counts of renal tubular cells and casts ; with standard manual Sternheimer-stained sediment analysis, sensitivity was 65% to 69% and specificity 66% to 91%, compared with the uncentrifuged chamber method at a cutoff of 3 and 10 particles per microliter, respectively. Renal damage was demonstrated with the UF-100 with a sensitivity of 26% to 69% and specificity 92% to 94%, compared with chamber counts. Automated urinalysis with the UF-100 urine flow cytometer offers considerable savings in time and labor. When high sensitivity is needed, visual microscopic review should be performed to detect renal disease.
Kurpad C, Mukherjee P, Wang XS, Ponnazhagan S, Li L, Yoder MC, Srivastava A (1999) Adeno-associated virus 2-mediated transduction and erythroid lineage-restricted expression from parvovirus B19p6 promoter in primary human hematopoietic progenitor cells. J Hematother Stem Cell Res 8 :585-592
Human parvovirus B19 gene expression from the viral p6 promoter (B19p6) is restricted to primary human hematopoietic cells undergoing erythroid differentiation. We have demonstrated that expression from this promoter does not occur in established human erythroid cell lines in the context of a recombinant parvovirus genome (Ponnazhagan et al. J Virol 69:8096-8101, 1995). However, abundant expression from this promoter can be readily detected in primary human bone marrow cells (Wang et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 92:12416-12420, 1995 ; Ponnazhagan et al. J Gen Virol 77:1111-1122, 1996). In the present studies, we investigated the pattern of expression from the B19p6 promoter in primary human bone marrow-derived CD34+ HPC undergoing differentiation into myeloid and erythroid lineages. CD34+ cells were transduced with recombinant adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV) vectors containing the beta-galactosidase (lacZ) gene under the control of the following promoters/enhancers : the cytomegalovirus promoter (vCMVp-lacZ), B19p6 promoter (vB19p6-lacZ), B19p6 promoter with an upstream erythroid cell-specific enhancer element (HS-2) from the locus control region (LCR) from the human beta-globin gene cluster (vHS2-B19p6-lacZ), and the human beta-globin gene promoter with the HS-2 enhancer (vHS2-beta p-lacZ). Transgene expression was evaluated either 48 h after infection or following erythroid differentiation in vitro for 3 weeks. Whereas high-level expression from the CMV promoter 48 h after infection diminished with time, low-level expression from the B19p6 and the beta-globin promoters increased significantly following erythroid differentiation. Furthermore, in HPC assays, there was no significant difference in the level of expression from the CMV promoter in myeloid or erythroid cell-derived colonies. Expression from the B19p6 and the beta-globin promoters, on the other hand, was restricted to erythroid cell colonies. These data further corroborate that the B19p6 promoter is erythroid cell-specific and suggest that the recombinant AAV-B19 hybrid vectors may prove useful in gene therapy of human hemoglobinopathies in general and sickle cell anemia and beta-thalassemia in particular.
Langlois MR, Delanghe JR, Steyaert SR, Everaert KC, De Buyzere ML (1999) Automated flow cytometry compared with an automated dipstick reader for urinalysis. Clin Chem 45 :118-122
Recently, the Sysmex UF-100 flow cytometer was developed to automate urinalysis. We compared UF-100 test results with those of an automated dipstick reader. A cross-check of UF-100, dipstick, and microscopic sediment data was performed in 1001 urine samples. Good agreements (P <0.001) were obtained between UF-100 and dipstick data for erythrocytes (r = 0.636) and leukocytes (r = 0.785). Even in urine with low conductivity, the UF-100 could detect lysed erythrocytes. The UF-100 bacterial count was higher among nitrite-positive urine samples (P <0.0001) and was positively correlated with the UF-100 leukocyte count (r = 0.745 ; P <0.001). In stored urine (24 h), bacterial counts increased, whereas the forward light scatter of leukocytes decreased (P <0.01). Casts and yeast cells reported by the UF-100 should be confirmed by microscopic review because false positives occurred. We suggest that a computer-assisted cross-check of UF-100 and dipstick data allows a clinically acceptable sieving system to reduce the workload of microscopic sediment urinalysis.
Levy AM, Heller ED, Leitner G, Davidson I (1999) Effect of native chicken interferon on MDV replication. Acta Virol 43 :121-127
Marek’s disease virus (MDV) is an oncogenic alphaherpesvirus. Its specific phosphorylated protein, pp38 has been implicated in MDV oncogenesis. In order to check whether the known anti-viral or anti-proliferative actions of interferon (IFN) are of importance in Marek’s disease (MD), chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEFs) were infected with attenuated serotype-1 MDV strain CVI988, or with herpesvirus of turkeys (HVT). Different concentrations of native chicken IFN were added to the cell cultures, prior to their infection. After incubation, MDV plaques were counted. Analysis by flow cytometry for pp38 expression was performed by using three monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) and for HVT by using an anti-glycoprotein B (gB) MAb. Increasing IFN quantities caused a reduction in a stepwise manner of plaque numbers as well as a suppression of pp38 and gB expression in the CVI988- and HVT-infected cells, respectively.
Lun A, Ziebig R, Hammer H, Otting U, Filler G, Sinha P (1999) Reference values for neonates and children for the UF-100 urine flow cytometer. Clin Chem 45 :1879-1880
Lybarger L, Chervenak R (1999) Flow cytometric analysis of transcription : use of green fluorescent protein variants to control transfection efficiency. Methods Enzymol 302 :199-206
Lybarger L, Chervenak R (1999) Fluorescent proteins in single- and multicolor flow cytometry. Methods Enzymol 302 :189-199
Monfardini E, Burvenich C, Massart-Leen AM, Smits E, Paape MJ (1999) Effect of antibiotic induced bacterial clearance in the udder on L-selectin shedding of blood neutrophils in cows with Escherichia coli mastitis. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 67 :373-384
Bacterial clearance, L-selectin adhesion receptor expression and neutrophil recruitment during experimentally induced Escherichia coli mastitis were investigated. Acute mastitis was induced by injection of 10(4) cfu E. coli into both left quarters of 12 clinically healthy lactating cows, 2-6 weeks after parturition. Half the cows were treated intravenously 10 h after infection, and subcutaneously 30 h after infection with enrofloxacin. In both groups, bacterial count, milk serum albumin, milk somatic cell count, circulating leukocyte count and L-selectin expression on neutrophils were determined. Both groups responded to challenge with udder inflammation and fever. Treatment with enrofloxacin affected the elimination rate of bacteria at hours +14, +18, +24, +48, and +72 after challenge, but not the bacteriological cure rate (five out of six for treated and three out of six for nontreated cows). The drop in L-selectin expression found following challenge did not differ between groups throughout the study. No effect of treatment was found on SCC. Based on these findings, it may be concluded that when treatment is administered 10 h after infection, the number of bacteria in milk is not correlated with L-selectin expression on circulating PMN during experimentally induced E. coli mastitis. The initial bacterial load probably dictates the extent of the decrease in L-selectin expression and milk somatic cells.
Nordstrom T, Willamo P, Arvela M, Stenroos K, Lindqvist C (1999) Detection of baculovirus-infected insect cells by flow cytometric side-scatter analyses. Cytometry 37 :238-242
Background:The baculovirus expression vector system (BEVS), utilizing the Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AcNPV), has turned out to be an attractive alternative for high-level expression (<600 mg/l) of recombinant proteins. However, there is a shortage of reliable methods for monitoring the infection process in situations where marker proteins cannot be used. Methods:Three recombinant baculoviruses, FastBac1-wtGFP, VTBac-GFP, and VL1392-hIL-2Ralpha, all having the genes inserted under the transcriptional control of the polyhedrin gene promoter of the Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AcNPV), were used to infect Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) and Mamestra brassicae (IZD-MB-0503) insect cells. The infection process of the recombinant baculoviruses was monitored by flow cytometric side-scatter and fluorescence intensity analyses over a period of 6-96 h. Results:A clear correlation between the side-scatter (SSC) signal and the relative fluorescence was observed for both of the infected cell lines, compared to noninfected cells. Comparison of SSC histograms from noninfected insect cells with cells infected with the nonfluorescent recombinant baculovirus VL1392-hIL-2Ralpha showed a clear increase of SSC for the infected cells. Conclusions:The SSC parameter can therefore be utilized for flow cytometric monitoring of a baculovirus infection process in situations where suitable markers are not available.
Odum N, Bregenholt S, Eriksen KW, Skov S, Ryder LP, Bendtzen K, Van Neerven RJ, Svejgaard A, Garred P (1999) The CC-chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) is a marker of, but not essential for the development of human Th1 cells. Tissue Antigens 54 :572-577
The CC-chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) has recently been described as a surface marker of human T cells producing type 1 (Th1) cytokines. Here we confirm that CCR5 is expressed on human Th1 but not on Th2 T-cell clones. Using intracellular cytokine staining, we show that alloantigen specific CD4+ T-cell lines derived from a CCR5-deficient individual (delta32 allele homozygote) contain high numbers of both interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) and interleukin (IL)-2 producing cells, low numbers of IL-10 producing cells and no IL4 or IL-5 producing cells when stimulated with phorbol ester and ionomycin in vitro. These results were similar to those obtained from alloantigen specific CD4+ T-cell lines derived from CCR5 expressing individuals. An enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA) confirmed that the Th1 cytokine-positive cells from the CCR5-deficient individual were able to produce equal amounts of cytokines when compared to T-cell lines from CCR5-expressing individuals, These results demonstrate that CCR5-negative T cells display the same capacity of Th1 T-cell differentiation as T cells derived from CCR5-expressing individuals. Thus, CCR5 expression is not essential for differentiation of human Th1 T cells.
Olson RJ, Sosik HM, Chekalyuk AM (1999) Photosynthetic characteristics of marine phytoplankton from pump-during-probe fluorometry of individual cells at sea. Cytometry 37 :1-13
BACKGROUND : Active fluorescence techniques are becoming commonly used to monitor the state of the photosynthetic apparatus in natural populations of phytoplankton, but at present these are bulk water measurements that average all the fluorescent material in each sample. Here we describe two instruments that combine individual-cell "pump-during-probe" (PDP) measurements of chlorophyll (Chl) fluorescence induction, on the time scale of 30 to 100 micros, with flow cytometric or visual characterization of each cell. METHODS : In the PDP flow cytometer, we measure Chl fluorescence yield as a function of time during a 150 micros excitation flash provided by an argon ion laser ; each particle is subsequently classified as in a conventional flow cytometer. In the PDP microfluorometer, individual cells in a sample chamber are visually identified, and fluorescence excitation is provided by a blue light-emitting diode that can be configured to provide a saturating flash and also a subsequent series of short flashlets. This sequence allows both saturation and relaxation kinetics to be monitored. RESULTS : Phytoplankton from natural samples and on-deck iron-enrichment incubation experiments in the Southern Ocean were examined with each PDP instrument, providing estimates of the potential quantum yield of photochemistry and the functional absorption cross section for photosystem 2, for either individuals (for cells larger than a few micrometers) or populations (for smaller cells). CONCLUSIONS : Results from initial field applications indicate that single-cell PDP measurements can be a powerful tool for investigating the nutritional state of phytoplankton cells and the regulation of phytoplankton growth in the sea.
Parkar MH, Kuru L, O’Hare M, Newman HN, Hughes F, Olsen I (1999) Retroviral transduction of human periodontal cells with a temperature-sensitive SV40 large T antigen. Arch Oral Biol 44 :823-834
The periodontal ligament (PDL) is considered to contain subpopulations of cells responsible for the development, repair and regeneration of the periodontium. Cell cultures have been used as model systems in order to understand the complex cellular and biochemical events underlying these processes. In order to obtain long-term cultures of these cells that can be cloned and characterized, primary cultures of PDL and gingival cells were infected with an amphotropic retroviral construct encoding a temperature-sensitive SV40 large T antigen (tsT). After selection for drug resistance, the cells expressed the T antigen and proliferated at 34 degrees C for more than 40 passages. However, when the T antigen was inactivated by incubation at 39 degrees C, the cultures became growth-arrested and the granularity of the cells increased, possibly as a result of differentiation. Reverse transcribed-polymerase chain reaction and flow cytometry showed that the tsT-transduced cells expressed a number of soft and hard connective-tissue antigens, including osteocalcin, osteonectin, osteopontin, collagen type I and alkaline phosphatase. Moreover, incubation of the transduced PDL cells at 39 degrees C was found to upregulate the expression of osteocalcin, osteopontin and collagen type I, but downregulate osteonectin. At this temperature, the presence of the dexamethasone downregulated type I collagen, while vitamin D3 had no effect on the expression of any of the antigens examined. Under all culture conditions, antigen expression was far higher in the transduced PDL cells than the gingival cells. The findings thus show that growth of the tsT-transduced PDL and gingival cells is temperature-dependent and that the presence of the T antigen increases their lifespan but does not ablate the expression of certain of their characteristic phenotypic and functional features.
Rattanasomboon N, Bellara SR, Harding CL, Fryer PJ, Thomas CR, Al-Rubeai M, McFarlane CM (1999) Growth and enumeration of the meat spoilage bacterium Brochothrix thermosphacta. Int J Food Microbiol 51 :145-158
Brochothrix thermosphacta is a common meat spoilage bacterium. The morphology of this bacterium changes from coccobacilli and short rods to chains during growth, which may give a false estimation in numbers using some enumeration techniques. Methods for the quantification of this bacterium have been compared. Turbidimetric readings showed good agreement with cell dry weight indicating that the former provides a good measure of the change in cell mass during growth. The turbidimetric method also correlated well with bacterial numbers determined by plate counts, flow cytometry and manual counts (by microscope) over a limited range of 10(7)-10(9) cells/ml. Flow cytometry and manual counts gave a linear relationship over a wider range of 10(5)-10(9) cells/ml. The sensitivity of analysis, growth rates and lag time attained using these methods were also compared. As a consequence of changes in bacterial cell size during growth, turbidimetry over-estimated the growth rate. The plate count method proved unable to detect the difference between bacteria existing as chains or single cells. The sensitivity of analysis and the calculated growth related parameters were similar for flow cytometry and manual counts. This suggests that flow cytometry is capable of counting individual cells in a chain. Further investigation showed that passage of B. thermosphacta cells through the flow cytometer resulted in the breakage of chains into single cells. The reliability, low error and rapidity of this technique make it attractive for bacterial enumeration, something which has been demonstrated using B. thermosphacta, a bacterium which exhibits complex morphologies.
Roets E, Burvenich C, Diez-Fraile A, Noordhuizen-Stassen EN (1999) Evaluation of the role of endotoxin and cortisol on modulation of CD18 adhesion receptors in cows with mastitis caused by Escherichia coli. Am J Vet Res 60 :534-540
OBJECTIVE : To determine the effect of mastitis caused by Escherichia coli on expression of CD18 cell surface receptors and to evaluate the involvement and regulation of receptors by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and cortisol. ANIMALS : 11 clinically normal lactating Holstein-Friesian cows. PROCEDURE : Binding of CD18 monoclonal antibodies to neutrophils was studied, using flow cytometry, before and after intramammary inoculation of E. coli organisms. Effect of LPS and cortisol on expression of adhesion receptors was investigated, using a whole-blood model. RESULTS : Expression of CD18 adhesion receptors on bovine neutrophils increased 35% by 12 hours after intramammary inoculation of E. coli. By 24 hours after inoculation, the number of receptors had returned to control values. High cortisol concentrations (100 nmol/L) were seen 12 to 18 hours after inoculation. Addition of LPS to blood induced a 30% increase in the number of CD18 receptors, and maximal number of receptors was expressed at an LPS concentration of 0.1 ng/ml. A decrease in the number of CD18 receptors was induced by incubation with cortisol or dexamethasone before challenge-exposure with LPS. CONCLUSIONS : An increase in the number of CD18 receptors on neutrophils is mediated by local production of LPS. Subsequent endogenous release of cortisol may prevent additional increases in the number of receptors. CLINICAL RELEVANCE : During acute mastitis caused by E. coli, there is an increase in the number of CD18 receptors on circulating neutrophils. Cortisol induces a decrease in the number of CD18 receptors, probably modulating the acute inflammatory response in mammary glands of lactating cows.
Roger P, Puchelle E, Bajolet-Laudinat O, Tournier JM, Debordeaux C, Plotkowski MC, Cohen JH, Sheppard D, de Bentzmann S (1999) Fibronectin and alpha5beta1 integrin mediate binding of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to repairing airway epithelium. Eur Respir J 13 :1301-1309
Initial infection of the airway by Pseudomonas aeruginosa may occur through a variety of bacterial strategies including binding to epithelial receptors present at the surface of the respiratory epithelium. In order to characterize the adherence sites for P. aeruginosa in damaged and repairing bronchial tissue, an ex vivo model of airway epithelial injury and repair was developed using primary cell cultures of nasal cells from 14 subjects with polyposis. P. aeruginosa strongly adhered to flattened dedifferentiated (FD) bronchial and nasal cytokeratin 13-positive epithelial cells in the process of migration for repair. In in vitro experiments, competitive binding inhibition assays demonstrated that alpha5beta1 integrins and cellular fibronectin, in particular the RGD sequence, are receptors involved in P. aeruginosa adherence to FD nasal epithelial cells. Fluorescent cell sorting analysis and immunofluorescence techniques revealed that the alpha5beta1 integrins are overexpressed and apically exposed in FD nasal epithelial cells. One 50 kDa outer membrane protein was identified in piliated and nonpiliated strains of P. aeruginosa that was involved in binding to cellular fibronectin and alpha5beta1 epithelial integrins. These results demonstrate that Pseudomonas aeruginosa adherence is related to the dedifferentiation of airway epithelium during the repair process which unmasks and upregulates the alpha5beta1 integrin expression and induces active synthesis of cellular fibronectin. These epithelial receptors are then used by a Pseudomonas aeruginosa 50 kDa outer membrane protein as sites of bacterial adherence.
Rubio N, Martin-Clemente B (1999) Theiler’s murine encephalomyelitis virus infection induces early expression of c-fos in astrocytes. Virology 258 :21-29
We have determined whether Theiler’s murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV), a picornavirus that produces demyelination in genetically susceptible strains of mice, induces c-fos in pure quiescent cultures of mouse brain astrocytes. As observed in Northern blots, the expression of this immediate early gene increases in a dose-dependent manner, with its expression peaking at a multiplicity of infection of 100. The expression of c-fos is transient, peaking after 30 min and disappearing 2 h after infection. The virus is quickly internalized at 37 degrees C upon binding to its specific receptor located at the cell surface and is actively replicated in the cytoplasm of the astrocytes, as demonstrated by FACS flow cytometry. Using the same technique, nuclear translation of c-fos mRNA is also shown. The specificity of viral induction is demonstrated by its neutralization with TMEV-specific antibodies and by the fact that only viral particles and not purified protein components VP1, VP2, and VP3 induced proto-oncogene expression. This rapid induction of c-fos in astrocytes could be the first stage in the infection of these central nervous system cell populations by TMEV. The biological relevance of these findings is assessed by the demonstration of c-fos activation after viral infection in vivo.
Schnitzler N, Peltroche-Llacsahuanga H, Bestier N, Zundorf J, Lutticken R, Haase G (1999) Effect of melanin and carotenoids of Exophiala (Wangiella) dermatitidis on phagocytosis, oxidative burst, and killing by human neutrophils. Infect Immun 67 :94-101
The black yeast Exophiala (Wangiella) dermatitidis is an increasingly recognized pathogen and a leading cause of severe pheohyphomycosis. Melanin is thought to contribute to the virulence of E. dermatitidis. Whereas the synthesis and the redox properties of melanin have been studied intensively, the influence of melanin and carotenoids on the phagocytosis, the oxidative burst, and the killing of E. dermatitidis by human neutrophils has not been studied. To study their effects on these phenomena, we applied a combination of flow cytometry and a colony-count-dependent method. Using E. dermatitidis wild-type strain 8565 and several melanin-deficient mutants that have been described previously, we demonstrate that melanin prevents this pathogen from being killed in the phagolysosome of the neutrophils. Melanin did not influence the phagocytosis or the oxidative burst of the neutrophils involved. The carotenoids torulene and torularhodine were not found to contribute to the prevention of killing. The ability of E. dermatitidis to block the effects of the neutrophil oxidative burst may critically impair the potential of the host to sufficiently eliminate this fungal pathogen and thus may play an important role in the pathogenesis of phaeohyphomycosis.
Sentsui H, Murakami K, Inoshima Y, Shibahara T, Yokomizo Y (1999) Isolation of parapoxvirus from a cow treated with interferon-gamma. Vet Microbiol 70 :143-152
A virus was isolated from peripheral blood leukocytes of a cow which was kept in an isolated pen after it was injected with recombinant bovine interferon-gamma. The virus was identified as a member of genus Parapoxvirus in the family Poxviridae on the basis of electron microscopic observations and serological tests. Parapoxvirus has seldom been isolated other than from papular lesions, the characteristic sign of parapoxvirus infection. This is the first report of parapoxvirus isolation from the peripheral blood of a cow without any clinical signs. These results show that parapoxviruses are capable of causing persistent infection in cattle without clinical signs and can be activated by stress factors that induce modification of immune reactions. Relationships between the isolated virus and other parapoxviruses isolated previously from cattle in Japan were investigated and discussed.
Seoh JY, Woo SY, Im SA, Kim YJ, Park HY, Lee S, Lee MA, Yoo ES, Huh JW, Ryu KH, Lee SN, Chung WS, Seong CM (1999) Distinct patterns of apoptosis in association with modulation of CD44 induced by thrombopoietin and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor during ex vivo expansion of human cord blood CD34+ cells. Br J Haematol 107 :176-185
The insufficient number of haemopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in cord blood (CB) is the major potential limitation to widespread use of CB for marrow replacement. Cytokine-mediated ex vivo expansion has been proposed as a means of increasing the number of CB HSCs for transplantation. However, the biology of CB HSCs during cytokine-mediated ex vivo expansion, such as apoptosis or expression of adhesion molecules, has not yet been elucidated. We have investigated the patterns of apoptosis and CD44 expression on human CB CD34+ cells during ex vivo expansion. CD34+ cells isolated from human CB were cultured in a stroma-free liquid culture system with thrombopoietin (TPO), flt3-ligand (FL), stem cell factor (SCF), and/or granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF). During the culture, for up to 5 weeks, apoptosis was measured by staining with 7-amino-actinomycin D (7-AAD) along with concurrent immunophenotyping of CD34 and CD44 with three-colour flow cytometry. In the cultures with TPO, an apoptotic fraction with down-regulated CD44 appeared from the fourth day up to the second week. G-CSF also induced apoptosis but in a different manner ; the apoptotic fraction without down-regulation of CD44 appeared unremittingly for up to 5 weeks. FL did not induce apoptosis or down-regulation of CD44. These findings show that apoptosis is indeed involved in the regulation of CB CD34+ cells in ex vivo expansion and the patterns of apoptosis are dependent on the type of cytokines used. The distinct patterns of apoptosis suggest different mechanisms of TPO and G-CSF in inducing apoptosis, which still remains to be elucidated.
Shen Z, Shen J, Zeng Y (1999) [Biological characteristics of human fetal esophageal epithelial cell line immortalized by the E6 and E7 gene of HPV type 18]. Zhonghua Shi Yan He Lin Chuang Bing Du Xue Za Zhi 13 :209-212
OBJECTIVE : Biological features including proliferation, differentiation and cell death of SHEE cell line, an immortalized epithelium of the fetal esophageal epithelium induced by HPV 18 E6E7 AAV, were studied. METHODS : SHEE cell line being cultured for more than 50 passages, were cultured in 199 growth medium and were examined by light, electron and fluorescence microscopy for growth rate, morphological features and chromosome analysis, by flow cytometry for cell proliferative dynamics, by immunohistochemistry for Ki67 and cytokeratin, and by terminal DNA transferase label (TUNEL) for apoptosis. RESULTS : At the 20th passage, the SHEE cell remained monolayer, anchorage-dependent and attachment-inhibited growth. The growth curve showed proliferative phase 3-8th days, top-plate phase 9-10th days and attenuative phase after 10th days. Proliferative index(PIx) 34.0%, mitotic index (MI) 2.74% (1.20%-4.80%), apoptotic index (AI) 1.30%-6.90%, chromosome analysis mainly 46 (44-54/nucleus) and DNA distribution in diploidy were calculated and described. The tonofilament expression in cell cytoplasm by electron-microscopy and positive reaction of cytokeratin by immunochemistry showed differentiative character of squamous epithelium. The cell apoptosis occured in the proliferative phase and especially increased in attenuative phase. CONCLUSION : Of biological behaviors, the SHEE cells are close to the basal cells of their original fetal esophageal mucosa keeping proliferative and differentiative potency. This study suggests that the cell death (including cell apoptosis) may be an important factor in studying of cell growth regulation and it may be an research area for cellular biological behaviors.
Sieracki ME, Cucci TL, Nicinski J (1999) Flow cytometric analysis of 5-cyano-2,3-ditolyl tetrazolium chloride activity of marine bacterioplankton in dilution cultures. Appl Environ Microbiol 65 :2409-2417
The respiratory activity of marine bacteria is an important indication of the ecological functioning of these organisms in marine ecosystems. The redox dye 5-cyano-2,3-ditolyl tetrazolium chloride (CTC) is reduced intracellularly in respiring cells to an insoluble, fluorescent precipitate. This product is detectable and quantifiable by flow cytometry in individual cells. We describe here an evaluation of flow cytometry for measuring CTC activity in natural assemblages of marine bacteria growing in dilution cultures. We found that more CTC-positive cells are detected by flow cytometry than by visual epifluorescence microscopy. Samples can be stored refrigerated or frozen in liquid nitrogen for at least 4 weeks without a significant loss of total cells, CTC-positive cells, or CTC fluorescence. Cytometry still may not detect all active cells, however, since the dimmest fluorescing cells are not clearly separated from background noise. Reduction of CTC is very fast in most active cells, and the number of active cells reaches 80% of the maximum number within 2 to 10 min. The proportion of active cells is correlated with the growth rate, while the amount of fluorescence per cell varies inversely with the growth rate. The CTC reduction kinetics in assemblages bubbled with nitrogen and in assemblages bubbled with air to vary the oxygen availability were the same, suggesting that CTC can effectively compete with oxygen for reducing power. A nonbubbled control, however, contained more CTC-positive cells, and the amount of fluorescence per cell was greater. Activity may have been reduced by bubble-induced turbulence. Addition of an artificial reducing agent, sodium dithionite, after CTC incubation and fixation resulted in a greater number of positive cells but did not "activate" a majority of the cells. This indicated that some of the negative cells actually transported CTC across their cell membranes but did not reduce it to a detectable level. Automated analysis by flow cytometry allows workers to study single-cell variability in marine bacterioplankton activity and changes in activity on a small temporal or spatial scale.
Smith CD, Blackburn EH (1999) Uncapping and deregulation of telomeres lead to detrimental cellular consequences in yeast. J Cell Biol 145 :203-214
Telomeres are the protein-nucleic acid structures at the ends of eukaryote chromosomes. Tandem repeats of telomeric DNA are templated by the RNA component (TER1) of the ribonucleoprotein telomerase. These repeats are bound by telomere binding proteins, which are thought to interact with other factors to create a higher-order cap complex that stabilizes the chromosome end. In the budding yeast Kluyveromyces lactis, the incorporation of certain mutant DNA sequences into telomeres leads to uncapping of telomeres, manifested by dramatic telomere elongation and increased length heterogeneity (telomere deregulation). Here we show that telomere deregulation leads to enlarged, misshapen "monster" cells with increased DNA content and apparent defects in cell division. However, such deregulated telomeres became stabilized at their elongated lengths upon addition of only a few functionally wild-type telomeric repeats to their ends, after which the frequency of monster cells decreased to wild-type levels. These results provide evidence for the importance of the most terminal repeats at the telomere in maintaining the cap complex essential for normal telomere function. Analysis of uncapped and capped telomeres also show that it is the deregulation resulting from telomere uncapping, rather than excessive telomere length per se, that is associated with DNA aberrations and morphological defects.
Srisatjaluk R, Doyle RJ, Justus DE (1999) Outer membrane vesicles of Porphyromonas gingivalis inhibit IFN-gamma-mediated MHC class II expression by human vascular endothelial cells. Microb Pathog 27 :81-91
Porphyromonas gingivalis is thought to be one of the major pathogenic organisms of adult periodontitis. Of the several virulence factors associated with the pathology it causes, evidence is now presented suggesting that outer membrane vesicles, which form from blebbing of the outer membrane, may also contribute to the pathogenesis of this bacterium. To evaluate this possibility, outer membrane vesicles were isolated from cultures of P. gingivalis and tested for their ability to promote inflammation and for their effects on the biosynthesis of E-selectin and ICAM-1 adhesion molecules and MHC class II glycoproteins. The results indicate that these vesicles are capable of inducing acute inflammation characterized by the accumulation of a large number of neutrophils in the connective tissue. This cellular response corresponds to the vesicle-mediated biosynthesis and surface membrane expression of E-selectin and ICAM-1 by vascular endothelial cells. In contrast, IFN-gamma-dependent synthesis of MHC class II molecules was found to be inhibited by vesicles. Inhibition of HLA-DR expression occurred regardless of whether vesicles were added at the same time as, 24 h before, or 24 h after IFN-gamma stimulation of endothelial cells, suggesting that the inhibitory effects occur at both the membrane and intracellular level. These findings, taken together, indicate that P. gingivalis membrane vesicles are capable of inducing and regulating cellular responses involved in inflammation and initiation of acquired immunity. Membrane vesicles are composed of muramyl peptides, periplasmic proteins and outer membrane constituents. The combination of these components probably contribute to the immune regulatory functions reported herein.
Srivastava R, Curtis M, Hendrickson S, Burns WH, Hosenpud JD (1999) Strain specific effects of cytomegalovirus on endothelial cells : implications for investigating the relationship between CMV and cardiac allograft vasculopathy. Transplantation 68 :1568-1573
BACKGROUND : Cytomegalovirus (CMV) has been associated with the development of chronic allograft rejection. Attempts to delineate pathogenetic mechanisms for this association have characteristically used well-established laboratory strains for in vitro investigation and rodent strains for in vivo studies. There is substantial genetic heterogeneity not only among different laboratory strains, but also between laboratory strains and clinical isolates, and genetic differences between human and animal strains are profound. Given these genetic differences, one would anticipate differences in biological activity between strains. METHODS : Vascular endothelial cells were infected with two laboratory strains of CMV (Towne and AD-169) as well as two individual clinical CMV isolates, after genetic typing with six segments of the genome (including early and late genes). mRNA expression coding for a panel of mesenchymal growth factors was studied using quantitative reverse transcription, polymerase chain reaction. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) expression was investigated using flow cytometry. RESULTS : There was substantial genetic variability between clinical and laboratory isolates. There did not appear to be differences in overall infectivity by the different strains as determined by expression of immediate-early antigen at 24 hours (5-10% of endothelial cells positive for immediate-early. Two growth factors, platelet-derived growth factor-A and basic fibroblast growth factor were augmented by one of the two clinical strains of CMV (Clin 2) (P=0.0091 and P=0.0018, respectively). Transforming growth factor -alpha and insulin-like growth factor expression were significantly reduced by both clinical strains and AD-169. Two other growth factors, heparin-binding epidermal growth factor and transforming growth factor-beta were not altered by infection with any strain. No strain altered MHC class II expression. MHC class I expression was increased with one of the two clinical strains (Clin 1, P=0.0006) and decreased by AD-169 (P=0.0016). Clin 2 and Towne had no effect on MHC class I expression. CONCLUSIONS : These data demonstrate that the genetic heterogeneity of CMV is associated with differences in transplant-relevant biologic activity even among clinical isolates. The relationship between CMV and chronic rejection may be difficult to determine given the heterogeneous nature of this complex virus.
Staalsoe T, Giha HA, Dodoo D, Theander TG, Hviid L (1999) Detection of antibodies to variant antigens on Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes by flow cytometry. Cytometry 35 :329-336
BACKGROUND : Naturally induced antibodies binding to surface antigens of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes can be detected by direct agglutination of infected erythrocytes or by indirect immunofluorescence on intact, unfixed, infected erythrocytes. Agglutinating antibodies have previously been shown to recognise Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1). This protein is inserted by the parasite into the host cell membrane and mediates the adhesion to the venular endothelium of the host organism in vivo. METHODS : Erythrocytes infected at high parasitaemias with ethidium-bromide-labelled mature forms of P. falciparum parasites were sequentially exposed to immune plasma, goat anti-human immunoglobulin (Ig) G, and fluorescein-isothiocyanate-conjugated rabbit anti-goat Ig. Plasma antibodies recognising antigens exposed on the surface of parasitised erythrocytes were subsequently detected by two-colour flow cytometry. RESULTS : Binding of human antibodies to the surface of erythrocytes infected with adhesive strains of Plasmodium falciparum can be measured by the two-colour flow cytometry (FCM) assay described. In addition, we demonstrate that the adhesive capacity of a parasite isolate correlates with the capacity of human immune plasmas to label the isolate as detected by FCM. We also show that the antigens recognised by the labelling antibodies are strain specific and that their molecular weights are in the range previously described for PfEMP1 antigens. CONCLUSIONS : Our FCM assay predominantly detects antibodies that recognise PfEMP1 and thus constitutes a convenient assay for the analysis of acquisition, maintenance, and diversity of anti-PfEMP1-specific antibodies and for the examination of class and subclass characteristics.
Steele-Mortimer O, Meresse S, Gorvel JP, Toh BH, Finlay BB (1999) Biogenesis of Salmonella typhimurium-containing vacuoles in epithelial cells involves interactions with the early endocytic pathway. Cell Microbiol 1 :33-49
In epithelial cells, the intracellular pathogen Salmonella typhimurium resides and replicates within a unique cytoplasmic organelle, the Salmonella-containing vacuole (SCV). In vitro studies have shown that the SCV is a dynamic organelle that selectively acquires lysosomal glycoproteins (Igps) without fusing directly with lyosomes. Here, we have investigated early events in SCV biogenesis using immunofluorescence microscopy and epitope-specific flow cytometry. We show that proteins specific to the early endocytic pathway, EEA1 and transferrin receptor (TR), are present on early SCVs. The association of these proteins with SCVs is transient, and both proteins are undetectable at later time points when Igp and vATPase are acquired. Analysis of the fraction of SCVs containing both TR and lamp-1 showed that TR is lost from SCVs as the Igp is acquired, and that these processes occur progressively and not as the result of a single fusion/fission event. These experiments reveal a novel mechanism of SCV biogenesis, involving previously undetected initial interactions with the early endocytic pathway followed by the sequential delivery of Igp. The pathway does not involve interactions with the late endosome/prelysosome and is distinct from traditional phagocytic and endocytic pathways. Our study indicates that intracellular S. typhimurium occupies a unique niche, branching away from the traditional endocytic pathway between the early and late endosomal compartments.
Sternberg S, Johannisson A, Magnusson U, Jensen-Waern M (1999) Effects of Actinobacillus equuli culture supernatants on equine neutrophil functions and survival. Zentralbl Veterinarmed B 46 :595-602
After exposure of equine granulocytes from both foals and adult horses to culture supernatants from clinical isolates of Actinobacillus equuli, phagocytic capacity and respiratory burst was examined by flow-cytometry and a chemiluminescence assay, respectively. One haemolytic isolate of an equine Actinobacillus was also included in the study. An average decrease of 22% in total number of granulocytes, in the flow cytometric assay (P < 0.01), and an average decrease of 26% in light emission, in the chemiluminescence assay (P < 0.001), was seen after exposure to bacterial culture supernatants of A. equuli, indicating that the supernatants contained leukotoxic bacterial products. Supernatants from the haemolytic isolate appeared to contain a higher amount or more potent leukotoxic metabolites when haemolysis was expressed, causing a decrease in total number of granulocytes of 44% (P < 0.01) and a decrease in light emission of 52% (P < 0.01). Evaluation of the stability of the methods used revealed that within-method variation was far less than the observed results. The leukotoxic effects of A. equuli culture supernatants were mainly reflected in the decreased survival of neutrophils and not in neutrophil functions.
Strutzenberger K, Borth N, Kunert R, Steinfellner W, Katinger H (1999) Changes during subclone development and ageing of human antibody-producing recombinant CHO cells. J Biotechnol 69 :215-226
Some of the problems encountered with human or human-mouse heterohybridomas, such as low growth rates and high serum requirements, have led to the increased use of recombinant cell lines for production of human antibodies. To evaluate the suitability of such alternative cell lines for the production of human antibodies we have analysed several subclones with differing specific production rates of a recombinant CHO cell line. Gene copy number and site of chromosomal integration for the light and heavy chain and the dhfr gene were determined by in-situ hybridisation. Specific mRNA content was analysed by Northern blot. In addition the intracellular content in light and heavy chain was measured by flow cytometry and the specific secretion rates were determined. The stability of gene expression was followed in the highest producing subclone for over a year. As previously seen in heterohybridoma cells a high expression rate of light chain is beneficial in speeding up secretion rates of whole antibody. When grown in the presence of G418 and methotrexate the amplified gene copies in the genome of recombinant CHO cells were stable over more than 100 passages. However, the expression of light chain, and with it the secretion rate, decreased with time. The low intracellular concentration of light chain resulted in accumulation of heavy chain in the endoplasmic reticulum due to retention by chaperones. The specific secretion rate decreased by 50% after 100 passages. When no G418 or methotrexate were present 75% of the gene copies were lost after 100 passages.
Tholozan JL, Cappelier JM, Tissier JP, Delattre G, Federighi M (1999) Physiological characterization of viable-but-nonculturable Campylobacter jejuni cells. Appl Environ Microbiol 65 :1110-1116
Campylobacter jejuni is a pathogenic, microaerophilic, gram-negative, mesophilic bacterium. Three strains isolated from humans with enteric campylobacteriosis were able to survive at high population levels (10(7) cells ml-1) as viable-but-nonculturable (VBNC) forms in microcosm water. The VBNC forms of the three C. jejuni strains were enumerated and characterized by using 5-cyano-2,3-ditolyl tetrazolium chloride-4’,6-diamino-2-phenylindole staining. Cellular volume, adenylate energy charge, internal pH, intracellular potassium concentration, and membrane potential values were determined in stationary-phase cell suspensions after 48 h of culture on Columbia agar and after 1 to 30 days of incubation in microcosm water and compared. A notable increase in cell volume was observed with the VBNC state ; the average cell volumes were 1.73 microliter mg of protein-1 for the culturable form and 10.96 microliter mg of protein-1 after 30 days of incubation in microcosm water. Both the internal potassium content and the membrane potential were significantly lower in the VBNC state than in the culturable state. Culturable cells were able to maintain a difference of 0.6 to 0.9 pH unit between the internal and external pH values ; with VBNC cells this difference decreased progressively with time of incubation in microcosm water. Measurements of the cellular adenylate nucleotide concentrations revealed that the cells had a low adenylate energy charge (0.66 to 0.26) after 1 day of incubation in microcosm water, and AMP was the only nucleotide detected in the three strains after 30 days of incubation in microcosm water.
Troyer JM, Radulovic S, Azad AF (1999) Green fluorescent protein as a marker in Rickettsia typhi transformation. Infect Immun 67 :3308-3311
Transformation of rickettsiae is a recent accomplishment, but utility of this technique is limited due to the paucity of selectable markers suitable for use in this intracellular pathogen. We chose a green fluorescent protein variant optimized for fluorescence under UV lights (GFPUV) as a fluorometric marker and transformed Rickettsia typhi with an rpoB-GFPUV fusion construct. The rickettsiae were subsequently grown in Vero cells, and cultures were screened by PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) to confirm incorporation of the rpoB-GFPUV construct. Cultures were then analyzed by flow cytometry for detection of GFPUV expression, and transformed R. typhi were isolated in a fluorescence-activated cell sorter. This is the first report of transformation of rickettsiae with a nonrickettsial (GFPUV) gene.
Uccelletti D, Mancini P, Farina F, Morrone S, Palleschi C (1999) Inactivation of the KIPMR1 gene of Kluyveromyces lactis results in defective cell-wall morphogenesis. Microbiology 145 ( Pt 5) :1079-1087
The P-type Ca2+ -ATPases are the transporters responsible for calcium homeostasis in the cell compartments of eukaryotes. The KIPMR1 gene of Kluyveromyces lactis encodes a P-type Ca2+ -ATPase, which is functionally and structurally homologous to Pmr1p of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the calcium pump localized in the Golgi membranes. In this work, a novel involvement of KIPmr1p in cell-wall morphogenesis of K. lactis is reported. KIpmr1delta cells exhibited the loss of outer-chain extension in the glycosylation of secreted proteins. The absence of KIPmr1p resulted in the accumulation of round, large cells with an abnormally thick cell wall, as revealed by transmission electron microscopy. The deletant strain also showed a delocalized deposition of chitin in the lateral cell wall accompanied by an unbalanced ratio of insoluble to soluble glucans. These morphological defects were accompanied by the presence of irregularly shaped nuclei and by a DNA content greater than 2n. Addition of 10 mM Ca2+ to the medium of the KIpmr1delta strain reversed the chitin-deposition impairment, recovered the alteration to the glucan ratio and restored a normal thickness of the cell wall. The mutant cells resumed wild-type size, shape and nuclear morphology but the DNA content indicated the persistence of defects in the co-ordination between DNA replication and cell division. The glycosylation defects were completely unaffected by the calcium supplement. These results indicate that calcium homeostasis controlled by KIPmr1p plays an important role in the cell-wall morphogenesis of K. lactis.
Unge A, Tombolini R, Molbak L, Jansson JK (1999) Simultaneous monitoring of cell number and metabolic activity of specific bacterial populations with a dual gfp-luxAB marker system. Appl Environ Microbiol 65 :813-821
A dual marker system was developed for simultaneous quantification of bacterial cell numbers and their activity with the luxAB and gfp genes, encoding bacterial luciferase and green fluorescent protein (GFP), respectively. The bioluminescence phenotype of the luxAB biomarker is dependent on cellular energy status. Since cellular metabolism requires energy, bioluminescence output is directly related to the metabolic activity of the cells. By contrast, GFP fluorescence has no energy requirement. Therefore, by combining these two biomarkers, total cell number and metabolic activity of a specific marked cell population could be monitored simultaneously. Two different bacterial strains, Escherichia coli DH5alpha and Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25, were chromosomally tagged with the dual marker cassette, and the cells were monitored under different conditions by flow cytometry, plate counting, and luminometry. During log-phase growth, the luciferase activity was proportional to the number of GFP-fluorescent cells and culturable cells. Upon entrance into stationary phase or during starvation, luciferase activity decreased due to a decrease in cellular metabolic activity of the population, but the number of GFP-fluorescing cells and culturable cells remained relatively stable. In addition, we optimized a procedure for extraction of bacterial cells from soil, allowing GFP-tagged bacteria in soil samples to be quantitated by flow cytometry. After 30 days of incubation of P. fluorescens SBW25 ::gfp/lux in soil, the cells were still maintained at high population densities, as determined by GFP fluorescence, but there was a slow decline in luciferase activity, implicating nutrient limitation. In conclusion, the dual marker system allowed simultaneous monitoring of the metabolic activity and cell number of a specific bacterial population and is a promising tool for monitoring of specific bacteria in situ in environmental samples.
Van Oostveldt K, Burvenich C, Da Silva FM, Massart-Leen AM (1999) Respiratory burst activity in activated and unstimulated isolated bovine blood neutrophils during experimentally induced Escherichia coli mastitis. J Dairy Res 66 :375-383
The respiratory burst activity, measured as H2O2 production, of isolated bovine polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMN) was evaluated during experimentally induced Escherichia coli mastitis by means of flow cytometry in cells activated by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and in unstimulated cells. As expected, a significantly reduced respiratory burst activity was observed in PMA-activated PMN 18 h after intramammary inoculation with Escherichia coli. At this time only 75% of the PMA-activated PMN showed a respiratory burst, but with a higher intensity than that measured before and later after infection with Esch. coli. In addition, an increase in the respiratory burst activity was observed in unstimulated blood PMN during a short period at 18 h after infection, when up to 30% of the unstimulated PMN had a respiratory burst activity. The increase in the respiratory burst intensity of PMA-activated PMN and the spontaneously augmented production of reduced oxygen species by the unstimulated PMN during infection with Esch. coli might indicate the production of a natural stimulator of burst activity in circulation, most probably originating from the inflamed udder.
Walberg M, Gaustad P, Steen HB (1999) Uptake kinetics of nucleic acid targeting dyes in S. aureus, E. faecalis and B. cereus : a flow cytometric study. J Microbiol Methods 35 :167-176
For flow cytometry-based detection as well as susceptibility testing and counting, staining of the bacterial cells is essential. In an attempt to develop rapid preparatory procedures for nucleic acid staining of wild type Gram positive bacteria, the uptake of fluorescent dyes in viable S. aureus, E. faecalis, and B. cereus cells was studied by flow cytometry under conditions intended to block probe efflux and increase cell wall permeability. The aim of the study was to develop procedures which allow rapid nucleic acid staining independent of fixation, since ethanol fixation is time-consuming and may mask phenomena associated with viability and lead to uncontrolled loss and aggregation of cells. The dye uptake was measured repeatedly after treating cells with metabolic inhibitors in order to block probe efflux, or cold shock (0 degree C) to increase permeability. The probes used were mithramycin (Mi), ethidium bromide (EB), DAPI, Hoechst 33342 and Hoechst 33258. None of the procedures facilitated uptake of the dyes to a level similar to that obtained in fixed control cells in all of the species. After metabolic inhibition of B. cereus cells, DAPI and Hoechst fluorescence increased to a level similar to or above that found in fixed cells, indicating that the uptake of these dyes is limited by energy-dependent efflux. A similar increase of DAPI fluorescence was observed after cold shock suggesting the uptake of this dye to be limited also by permeability in B. cereus. The Mi and EB fluorescence increased to the level of the fixed control cells under all conditions tested, suggesting free probe influx in this species. Generally, probe uptake in S. aureus and E. faecalis was lower than in B. cereus cells, and no permeabilizing effect of cold shock was observed. In some experiments the fluorescence exceeded that of ethanol fixed control cells, indicating that the fixation may cause conformational changes in DNA.
Wang PL, Shirasu S, Shinohara M, Daito M, Oido M, Kowashi Y, Ohura K (1999) Induction of apoptosis in human gingival fibroblasts by a Porphyromonas gingivalis protease preparation. Arch Oral Biol 44 :337-342
Proteases produced by Porphyromonas gingivalis are believed to contribute to the pathogenesis of periodontal diseases. Here the cytotoxic effects of a purified preparation of a P. gingivalis protease with trypsin-like specificity were tested on human gingival fibroblasts in vitro. The active protease induced apoptotic cell death in the fibroblasts, as indicated by DNA fragmentation and the expression of 7A6 antigen. Thus, the production of proteases by periodontopathic bacteria could be an important factor in the induction of apoptosis of host cells in the aetiology of periodontal diseases.
Wang X, Slavik MF (1999) Rapid detection of Salmonella in chicken washes by immunomagnetic separation and flow cytometry. J Food Prot 62 :717-723
Use of flow cytometry to rapidly detect Salmonella in chicken carcass washes was investigated. A direct immunomagnetic separation method was used to prepare samples and was found to be an effective method for separating target cells from debris in chicken carcass washes. When flow cytometry was combined with immunomagnetic separation, the average lowest detectable level of Salmonella detected was 2.3 x 10(4) CFU/ml. Fifty of 100 wash samples from six groups were inoculated with 2 x 10(-1) CFU of Salmonella Typhimurium per milliliter. After 18 h of enrichment at 37 degrees C, all samples were tested for Salmonella using flow cytometry and conventional culture methods. An identification correlation of 96% was found between flow cytometry and xylose-lysine-tergitol agar plating. Quantitative analysis established a significant linear relationship between the enumeration results of flow cytometry and xylose-lysine-tergitol agar plate counts (R2 = 0.796). Time required for flow cytometry, including sample processing and flow cytometric analysis, was less than 1 h.
Weiland F, Weiland E, Unger G, Saalmuller A, Thiel HJ (1999) Localization of pestiviral envelope proteins E(rns) and E2 at the cell surface and on isolated particles. J Gen Virol 80 ( Pt 5) :1157-1165
The glycoproteins E(rns) of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) and E(rns) and E2 of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) are shown to be located at the surface of infected cells by the use of indirect immunofluorescence and by cytofluorometric analysis. The positive immunostaining of the cell surface was further analysed by immunogold electron microscopy and it could be shown that only extracellular virions were labelled. Gold granules were not seen at the cellular plasma membrane. In contrast to BVDV E2, the CSFV E2 of virions sticking to the plasma membrane was not accessible to the respective monoclonal antibodies. However, CSFV particles isolated from culture supernatant were able to bind both monoclonal anti-E(rns) and anti-E2 antibodies. For CSFV and BVDV, binding of anti-E(rns) antibodies to the virions was more pronounced than that of anti-E2. This finding was unexpected since E2 is considered to be the immunodominant glycoprotein.
Werling D, Hope JC, Chaplin P, Collins RA, Taylor G, Howard CJ (1999) Involvement of caveolae in the uptake of respiratory syncytial virus antigen by dendritic cells. J Leukoc Biol 66 :50-58
The uptake of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) antigen by cattle dendritic cells was investigated. Pathways of antigen uptake were monitored by flow cytometry using specific tracers and by proliferation assays, which were used to measure the presentation of RSV antigen and ovalbumin. Inhibitors that differentially affected pathways were used to distinguish them. Presentation of RSV antigen, but not ovalbumin, was inhibited by phorbol myristate acetate and filipin, which have been reported to inhibit caveolae, but not by cytochalasin D, amiloride, or mannose. These inhibitors have been reported to block macropinocytosis and other actin-dependent uptake mechanisms, endocytic pathways involving clathrin-coated pits, and the mannose receptor. Furthermore, co-localization of RSV antigen and caveolae was observed by confocal microscopy. Thus, the major route for uptake of RSV antigen by cattle dendritic cells is one mediated by caveolae, adding a pathway of antigen uptake by dendritic cells to those established.
Westra DF, Kuiperij HB, Welling GW, Scheffer AJ, The TH, Welling-Wester S (1999) Domains of glycoprotein H of herpes simplex virus type 1 involved in complex formation with glycoprotein L. Virology 261 :96-105
The complex formation between glycoproteins H (gH) and L (gL) of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) was studied by using five recombinant baculoviruses expressing open reading frames that contain deletions in the coding region of the extracellular domain of gH. In addition, the gH-deletion mutants contained a C-terminal tag. Complex formation of gL and the gH-deletion mutants was studied by immunoprecipitations with anti-tag monoclonal antibody (MAb) A16 and with the gH-specific MAbs 37S, 46S, and 52S. All gH-deletion mutants were complexed to gL when analyzed by MAb A16. MAb 37S precipitated complexes between gL and the two gH-deletion mutants that contain the epitope of this MAb. When the gH conformation-dependent MAbs 46S and 52S were used, gL was coprecipitated together with the gH-deletion mutant lacking amino acids 31-299, but gL was not coprecipitated with the gH-deletion mutant lacking amino acids 31-473. The data from the precipitation studies do allow at least two interpretations. There is either one site for gL binding on gH (residue 300-473) or gL contacts multiple regions of gH. We were unable to demonstrate gL-dependent cell surface expression of either of the gH-deletion mutants. This suggests that the coassociation of gH with gL is necessary but not sufficient for transport of gH to the cell surface.
Williams I, Paul F, Lloyd D, Jepras R, Critchley I, Newman M, Warrack J, Giokarini T, Hayes AJ, Randerson PF, Venables WA (1999) Flow cytometry and other techniques show that Staphylococcus aureus undergoes significant physiological changes in the early stages of surface-attached culture. Microbiology 145 ( Pt 6) :1325-1333
The techniques of flow cytometry, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and confocal scanning laser microscopy were used to study the physiology of Staphylococcus aureus in the early stages of surface-attached culture, and to make direct comparisons with planktonic bacteria grown under the same conditions. Attached bacteria growing in nutrient-rich batch culture were found to go through the same growth phases as equivalent planktonic cultures, but with an exponential growth rate of about half that of the planktonic bacteria. Viability of attached bacteria was very high (around 100%) throughout the first 24 h of growth. The size and protein content of attached bacteria varied with growth phase, and both measurements were always smaller than in planktonic bacteria at equivalent growth phases. Respiratory activity per bacterium, as measured by flow cytofluorimetry, and corrected for cell volume, peaked very early in attached cultures (before the first cell division) and declined from then on, whereas in planktonic bacteria it peaked in late exponential phase. Attached and planktonic bacteria showed thicker cell walls in stationary phase than in exponential phase. Membrane potentials of planktonic and attached bacteria were similar in stationary phase, but were much lower in exponential-phase attached cells than in the equivalent planktonic cells. It is apparent that a range of significant physiological adaptations occur during the early phases of attached growth.
Zaidi TS, Lyczak J, Preston M, Pier GB (1999) Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator-mediated corneal epithelial cell ingestion of Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a key component in the pathogenesis of experimental murine keratitis. Infect Immun 67 :1481-1492
Previous findings indicate that the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a ligand for Pseudomonas aeruginosa ingestion into respiratory epithelial cells. In experimental murine keratitis, P. aeruginosa enters corneal epithelial cells. We determined the importance of CFTR-mediated uptake of P. aeruginosa by corneal cells in experimental eye infections. Entry of noncytotoxic (exoU) P. aeruginosa into human and rabbit corneal cell cultures was inhibited with monoclonal antibodies and peptides specific to CFTR amino acids 108 to 117. Immunofluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry demonstrated CFTR in the intact murine corneal epithelium, and electron microscopy showed that CFTR binds to P. aeruginosa following corneal cell ingestion. In experimental murine eye infections, multiple additions of 5 nM CFTR peptide 103-117 to inocula of either cytotoxic (exoU+) or noncytotoxic P. aeruginosa resulted in large reductions in bacteria in the eye and markedly lessened eye pathology. Compared with wild-type C57BL/6 mice, heterozygous DeltaF508 Cftr mice infected with P. aeruginosa had an approximately 10-fold reduction in bacterial levels in the eye and consequent reductions in eye pathology. Homozygous DeltaF508 Cftr mice were nearly completely resistant to P. aeruginosa corneal infection. CFTR-mediated internalization of P. aeruginosa by buried corneal epithelial cells is critical to the pathogenesis of experimental eye infection, while in the lung, P. aeruginosa uptake by surface epithelial cells enhances P. aeruginosa clearance from this tissue.
Zorgani A, Essery SD, Madani OA, Bentley AJ, James VS, MacKenzie DA, Keeling JW, Rambaud C, Hilton J, Blackwell CC, Weir DM, Busuttil A (1999) Detection of pyrogenic toxins of Staphylococcus aureus in sudden infant death syndrome. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 25 :103-108
It has been suggested that pyrogenic toxins of Staphylococcus aureus are involved in the series of events leading to some cases of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). The objectives of the study were to screen tissues from SIDS infants for pyrogenic toxins and to compare incidence of identification of these toxins among these infants from different countries. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a flow cytometry method were used to screen body fluids and frozen or formalin-fixed tissues for pyrogenic toxins of S. aureus, toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST), staphylococcal enterotoxins A (SEA), B (SEB), and C1 (SEC). Toxins were identified in tissues of 33/62 (53%) SIDS infants from three different countries : Scotland (10/ 19, 56%) ; France (7/13, 55%) ; Australia (16/30, 53%). In the Australian series, toxins were identified in only 3/19 (16%) non-SIDS deaths (chi2 = 5.42, P < 0.02). The flow cytometry method was useful for toxin detection in both frozen and fixed tissues, but ELISA was suitable only for frozen tissues or those fixed for less than 12 months. Identification of pyrogenic toxins in > 50% of SIDS infants from three different countries indicated further investigation into the role the toxins play in cot deaths might result in development of additional measures to reduce further the incidence of these infant deaths.
Zubkov MV, Fuchs BM, Eilers H, Burkill PH, Amann R (1999) Determination of total protein content of bacterial cells by SYPRO staining and flow cytometry. Appl Environ Microbiol 65 :3251-3257
An assay has been developed for measuring protein biomass of marine planktonic bacteria by flow cytometry. The method was calibrated by using five species of Bacteria (an Arcobacter sp., a Cytophaga sp., an Oceanospirillum sp., a Pseudoalteromonas sp., and a Vibrio sp.) recently isolated from seawater samples and grown in culture at different temperatures. The intensity of SYPRO-protein fluorescence of these bacteria strongly correlated with their total protein content, measured by the bicinchoninic acid method to be in the range of 60 to 330 fg of protein cell-1 (r2 = 0.93, n = 34). According to the calibration, the mean biomass of planktonic bacteria from the North Sea in August 1998 was 24 fg of protein cell-1.